【受访嘉宾】威廉·麦克布莱德（William L. McBride）：国际哲学团体联合会前任主席，全球知名马克思哲学专家，第二十四届世界哲学大会闭幕演讲“马克思诞辰两百周年特别讲座”主讲人
William L. McBride: That's a good question at first. I mean there was a movement in the United States among the American Philosophical Association a few years ago, maybe twenty years ago, which was called a pluralist movement. And it basically attempted to overcome the dominance of a certain kind of analytic philosophy over at least the eastern division of the Association. And it was successful, this movement.
I don't know whether the word pluralism is the best word for this, but maybe it is, and the question is a good one, the idea of pluralism is something that I'd like to see spread throughout the world and not just within a certain limited group of professional philosophers in the United States or anywhere else. So, I mean basically everyone is going to have a sort of a certain preference for a certain philosophical methodology and way of looking at things.
But you know there should be as much as possible tolerance of other views and attempted interaction between different views to the extent that is possible. And I mean it should be possible in large measure without giving up one's own sort of basic orientations or basic perspectives.
William L. McBride: Well, that's a big question. I mean I think that word that Marx used in his, a little bit in his early years, but especially it's famous from the Thesis on Feuerbach, which was published some years after his death, the word praxis is a very good summary of his central ideas. And a lot of people would say this, I'm not the only person who says this.
And basically it's the idea that human beings are above all creatures of activity. They are material, but they're not basically just like robots or the effects of different forces, but they have this capacity, which Marx says Feuerbach's philosophy lacks this capacity to look at the world and change it and do things to it in different ways. And that's the notion of praxis. And you know it's not just changing the world in a big sense which is the last thesis about changing the world, of course, but making small changes and making doing.
I mean the human being is essentially a creature as Marx sees it of activity and not of passivity, not of pure contemplation. For Marx theory itself is a kind of practice, is a kind of activity. And that's what his theory is. And so I mean of course for Marx human beings are material obviously. And they're not some sort of combination of matter and spirit, like Descartes would have it, dualism.
But anyway human beings are material, but at the same time they're active and not purely passive recipients of external forces.
William L. McBride: Well I mean he ultimately looked forward to what he called the Society of associated producers in Capital, or socialist society. So certainly he looked to the ending of the established order above all in Europe, because that's what he knew best. But the established order of his day was by and large except for the United States, it was in some Latin American countries just beginning, it was essentially an established order of monarchies and old aristocracies. And all of this sort of-, but at the same time they were now supporting capitalist structures which had never existed when these institutions came into existence years, centuries before. So essentially it's kind of basically getting rid of the old order.