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多元文化与马克思关于人的存在 ——专访国际哲学团体联合会前主席威廉·麦克布莱德
2019年01月30日 09:43 来源:中国社会苹果彩票pk10网 作者:李秀伟

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作者简介:

  【受访嘉宾】威廉·麦克布莱德(William L. McBride):国际哲学团体联合会前任主席,全球知名马克思哲学专家,第二十四届世界哲学大会闭幕演讲“马克思诞辰两百周年特别讲座”主讲人

  【采访人】中国社会苹果彩票pk10网 李秀伟

  中国社会苹果彩票pk10网:如何理解哲学共同体,一元与多元之间的对立和统一?

  William L. McBride: That's a good question at first. I mean there was a movement in the United States among the American Philosophical Association a few years ago, maybe twenty years ago, which was called a pluralist movement. And it basically attempted to overcome the dominance of a certain kind of analytic philosophy over at least the eastern division of the Association. And it was successful, this movement.

  I don't know whether the word pluralism is the best word for this, but maybe it is, and the question is a good one, the idea of pluralism is something that I'd like to see spread throughout the world and not just within a certain limited group of professional philosophers in the United States or anywhere else. So, I mean basically everyone is going to have a sort of a certain preference for a certain philosophical methodology and way of looking at things.

  But you know there should be as much as possible tolerance of other views and attempted interaction between different views to the extent that is possible. And I mean it should be possible in large measure without giving up one's own sort of basic orientations or basic perspectives.

  麦克布莱德:首先这是个很好的问题。20年前左右,在美国哲学协会当中,人们发起了一项运动,叫做“多元化”运动。该运动的主旨就是要结束哲学界被某一种哲学思想统治的局面——至少是在协会的美国东部地区。当时这项运动取得了成功。

  我不知道“多元化”这个词是不是最合适的一个词,也许是的,而且你问的这个问题很好,“多元化”其实是我希望在全世界看到的一种局面,而不仅仅是局限在美国本土、或其他任何小范围的,有限的一些哲学家当中。每个人都会有自己倾向的一种哲学思想和看待事物的方式。

  所以我认为,我们应该对不同的思想和观点有足够的包容,而不同的思想之间也应该有尽可能多的碰撞。我想,我们应该可以在大方向上思想统一的前提下,又能够允许每个人有各自倾向的思想基础或视角。 

  中国社会苹果彩票pk10网:如何理解马克思关于人的存在?

  William L. McBride: Well, that's a big question. I mean I think that word that Marx used in his, a little bit in his early years, but especially it's famous from the Thesis on Feuerbach, which was published some years after his death, the word praxis is a very good summary of his central ideas. And a lot of people would say this, I'm not the only person who says this.

  And basically it's the idea that human beings are above all creatures of activity. They are material, but they're not basically just like robots or the effects of different forces, but they have this capacity, which Marx says Feuerbach's philosophy lacks this capacity to look at the world and change it and do things to it in different ways. And that's the notion of praxis. And you know it's not just changing the world in a big sense which is the last thesis about changing the world, of course, but making small changes and making doing.

  I mean the human being is essentially a creature as Marx sees it of activity and not of passivity, not of pure contemplation. For Marx theory itself is a kind of practice, is a kind of activity. And that's what his theory is. And so I mean of course for Marx human beings are material obviously. And they're not some sort of combination of matter and spirit, like Descartes would have it, dualism.

  But anyway human beings are material, but at the same time they're active and not purely passive recipients of external forces.

  麦克布莱德:这是个很大的问题。马克思在早期作品中所用的一个词“实践”——尤其是在他去世后几年发表的《关于费尔巴哈的提纲》中,这个词开始受到广泛关注,“实践”一词很好地总结了他的核心思想。实际上,有很多人和我一样持这种观点。

  “实践”的基本理念就是,人类是所有具有能动性生物的最高级别。人类首先是物质的,但是他们又不同于机器人或受外力支撑的机械物,人类是有自身特别的能力的,这种能力——马克思特别强调在费尔巴哈的哲学思想中缺乏对它的认识,那就是人类具有认知世界和改变世界的能力,人类可以对世界以多种不同的方式实施改变。这就是“实践”的观念。但实际上,在很大意义上也不仅仅是改变世界——在《关于费尔巴哈的提纲》最后一条就是讲改变世界的,同时还有进行小的改变和实践活动。

  我认为,马克思是把人类看做是具有主观能动性的生物,而不是被动的或单纯思想的化身。马克思的理论认为,人是有实践性的,是有主观能动性的。这就是他的理论。并且,我当然地认为对马克思而言人类显然是物质性的存在,而且他们也不像的笛卡尔所认为的那样是物质和精神的合体,是一个双性的存在,而是肉体内载有终极灵魂的生物——比如像黑格尔的理论在某种意义上所认为,当然用这个来描述黑格尔的理论有些过于简单了。

  总的来说,马克思认为人类首先是物质性的,但同时人类又是具有主观能动性的,而不仅仅是被动的、由单纯外力支撑的一个载体。

  中国社会苹果彩票pk10网:马克思政治哲学的诉求是什么?

  William L. McBride: Well I mean he ultimately looked forward to what he called the Society of associated producers in Capital, or socialist society. So certainly he looked to the ending of the established order above all in Europe, because that's what he knew best. But the established order of his day was by and large except for the United States, it was in some Latin American countries just beginning, it was essentially an established order of monarchies and old aristocracies. And all of this sort of-, but at the same time they were now supporting capitalist structures which had never existed when these institutions came into existence years, centuries before. So essentially it's kind of basically getting rid of the old order.

  麦克布莱德:马克思的终极目标就是在《资本论》中提到的所谓的生产者联合的社会,或社会主义社会。因此,他首先考虑的当然是终结欧洲的既有制度,因为这是他最了解的。然而,他那个时代的既有的制度——除了美国之外,在拉丁美州的一些国家才刚刚开始,总的来说本质上就是君主制和贵族统治制度。但同时,这些君主制和贵族制是支持资本主义体系的;尽管多年乃至几个世纪前这些制度出现时,资本主义体系并不存在。所以本质上来说,就是某种要消除旧秩序(的诉求)。

作者简介

姓名:李秀伟 工作单位:

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